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Glossar

Anteil der erneuerbaren Energien an der Stromerzeugung

Ratio between the electricity production from renewable energies (hydro, wind, geothermal and solar) and the total electricity production. Electricity corresponds to the electricity produced and transported for commercial purposes, used by ad-hoc devices.

Anteil von Wind und Solar in der Stromproduktion

Electricity produced from wind and solar energy divided by the total electricity production.

Bilanz des Energiehandels

The trade balance is the difference between imports and exports. The balance of a net exporter appears as a negative value (-). The balance of geographic and geopolitical zones is simply the sum of the trade balance of all the countries. Total energy includes coal, gas, oil, electricity, heat and biomass.

Bilanz des Erdgashandels

The trade balance is the difference between exports and imports. The balance of a net exporter appears as a negative value (-). The balance of geographic and geopolitical zones is simply the sum of the trade balance of all the countries. Natural gas is mainly made of methane (CH4). It is marketed after separation of the liquid fractions. The calorific power of natural gas varies according to its methane concentration. The standard coefficient used by Enerdata is: 0.82 toe/m3, for important countries national coefficients are used.

Bilanz des Rohölhandels

The trade balance is the difference between exports and imports. The balance of a net exporter appears as a negative value (-). The balance of geographic and geopolitical zones is simply the sum of the trade balance of all the countries. Crude oil includes all liquid hydrocarbons to be refined: crude oil, liquids from natural gas (Natural Gas Liquid or NGL) and semi-refined products.

Bilanz des Stromhandels

The trade balance is the difference between exports and imports. The balance of a net exporter appears as a negative value (-). The balance of geographic and geopolitical zones is simply the sum of the trade balance of all the countries. Electricity corresponds to the electricity produced and transported for commercial purposes, used by ad-hoc devices.

CO2-Emissionen aus der Brennstoffverbrennung

CO2 emissions cover only the emissions from fossil fuels combustion (coal, oil and gas) by sector. They are calculated according to the UNFCCC methodology (in line with the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories).

CO2-Intensität bei konstanten Kaufkraftparitäten

CO2 intensity is the ratio of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion over Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It measures the CO2 emitted to generate one unit of GDP. GDP is expressed at constant exchange rate and purchasing power parity to remove the impact of inflation and reflect differences in general price levels and relate energy consumption to the real level of economic activity. Using purchasing power parity rates for GDP instead of exchange rates increases the value of GDP in regions with a low cost of living, and therefore decreases their CO2 intensities. CO2 emissions cover only the emissions for fossil fuels combustion (coal, oil and gas).

Durchschnittlicher CO2-Emissionsfaktor

The average CO2 emission factor (carbon factor) is calculated doing the ratio between CO2 emissions over primary energy consumption.

Energieintensität des BIP bei konstanten Kaufkraftparitäten

The energy intensity is calculated by dividing the total energy consumption of a country by its Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It measures the total amount of energy necessary to generate one unit of GDP. Total energy consumption includes coal, gas, oil, electricity, heat and biomass. GDP is expressed at constant exchange rate and purchasing power parity to remove the impact of inflation and reflect differences in general price levels and relate energy consumption to the real level of economic activity. Using purchasing power parity rates for GDP instead of exchange rates increases the value of GDP in regions with a low cost of living, and therefore decreases their energy intensities.

Erdgasförderung

Natural gas production corresponds to the marketed production (i.e. excluding quantities flared or reinjected). Natural gas is mainly made of methane (CH4). It is marketed after separation of the liquid fractions. The calorific power of natural gas varies according to its methane concentration. The standard coefficient used by Enerdata is: 0.82 toe/m3, for important countries national coefficients are used.

Förderung von Kohle und Braunkohle

Coal production corresponds to gross production. Coal and lignite represent all mineral solid fuels. Their calorific values vary very much from hard coal to lignite (national average coefficients are used).

Gesamte Energieproduktion

The primary production evaluates the quantity of natural energy resources ("primary energy sources") extracted or produced. It includes coal, gas, oil, electricity, heat and biomass production. For natural gas, the quantities flared or reinjected are excluded. Production of hydro, geothermal, nuclear and wind electricity is considered as primary production.

Gesamter Energieverbrauch

For each energy product, it is the sum of primary production, external trade, marine bunkers (fuel used by boats and aircraft for international transport) and stock variations. For the world, marine bunkers are included. This induces a gap with the sum of regions. Total energy includes coal, gas, oil, electricity, heat and biomass.

Handelsbilanz Stein- und Braunkohle

The trade balance is the difference between exports and imports. The balance of a net exporter appears as a negative value (-). The balance of geographic and geopolitical zones is simply the sum of the trade balance of all the countries. Coal and lignite represent all mineral solid fuels. Their calorific values vary very much from hard coal to lignite (national average coefficients are used).

Heimischer Erdgasverbrauch

Consumption (or domestic supply) is the balance of production, external trade and stock changes. Natural gas is mainly made of methane (CH4). It is marketed after separation of the liquid fractions. The calorific power of natural gas varies according to its methane concentration. The standard coefficient used by Enerdata is: 0.82 toe/m3, for important countries national coefficients are used.

Heimischer Stromverbrauch

Consumption (or domestic supply) is the balance of production and external trade. They are included at the world level. It is mainly divided between power plants, industry, transport and the residential and tertiary sectors, one part is used or lost in the energy transformation. Electricity corresponds to the electricity produced and transported for commercial purposes, used by ad-hoc devices.

Heimischer Verbrauch von Kohle und Braunkohle

Consumption (or domestic supply) is the balance of production, external trade and stock changes. Coal and lignite represent all mineral solid fuels. Their calorific values vary very much from hard coal to lignite (national average coefficients are used).

LNG-Handelsbilanz

The trade balance is the difference between exports and imports. The balance of a net exporter appears as a negative value (-). The balance of geographic and geopolitical zones is simply the sum of the trade balance of all the countries. LNG (liquefied natural gas) is natural gas, mainly made of methane (CH4), that is cooled down at -160°C to become liquid and non-corrosive, and to reduce its volume by around 600 times. LNG can thus be stored in tanks and can be easily transported by ship instead of gas pipelines, increasing the flexibility of global gas trade.

Produktion von raffinierten Ölprodukten

Petroleum products are all liquid hydrocarbons, obtained by the refining of crude oil and NGL and by treatment of natural gas ; in particular, LPG production (Liquid Petroleum Gas) includes LPG from natural gas separation plants. The alcohol used as motor fuel in Brazil as well as fuels derived from coal in South Africa are not included in oil products.

Rohölproduktion

Crude oil production corresponds to gross production. Crude oil includes all liquid hydrocarbons to be refined: crude oil, liquids from natural gas (Natural Gas Liquid or NGL) and semi-refined products.

Stromanteil am gesamten Energieendverbrauch

Share of electricity in total final energy consumption.

Stromerzeugung

Electricity production corresponds to gross production. It includes the public production (production of private and public electricity utilities) and the autoproducers, by any type of power plants (including cogeneration). Electricity corresponds to the electricity produced and transported for commercial purposes, used by ad-hoc devices.

Ölprodukte - Handelsbilanz

The trade balance is the difference between exports and imports. The balance of a net exporter appears as a negative value (-). The balance of geographic and geopolitical zones is simply the sum of the trade balance of all the countries. Petroleum products are all liquid hydrocarbons, obtained by the refining of crude oil and NGL and by treatment of natural gas ; in particular, LPG production (Liquid Petroleum Gas) includes LPG from natural gas separation plants. The alcohol used as motor fuel in Brazil as well as fuels derived from coal in South Africa are not included in oil products.

Ölprodukte - Heimischer Verbrauch

Consumption (or domestic supply) is the balance of production, external trade and stock changes. Marine bunkers are excluded for countries. They are included at the world level. Consumption is mainly divided between power plants, industry, transport and the residential and tertiary sectors, one part is used or lost in the energy transformation. Petroleum products are all liquid hydrocarbons, obtained by the refining of crude oil and NGL and by treatment of natural gas ; in particular, LPG production (Liquid Petroleum Gas) includes LPG from natural gas separation plants. The alcohol used as motor fuel in Brazil as well as fuels derived from coal in South Africa are not included in oil products.

Globale Energietrends - Ausgabe 2021

Konsolidierte Energie- und Emissionsstatistiken für 2020 mit Schätzungen für 2021, einschließlich Covid-19-Auswirkungen und strukturelle Veränderungen

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18

May

Iran exported 17 bcm of natural gas in the past year (March 2021-March 2022), according to the National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC), including 7.3 bcm to Iraq (43%) and 3.3 bcm to Turkey (19%). Around 98% of cities and 85% of villages in the country are connected to the natural gas transmission network. In 2020, Iran exported 11.3 bcm of natural gas and Iraq sourced 100% of its natural gas imports from Iran, totalling 5.7 bcm in 2020.

28

Apr

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) rose by 7.3% in 2021, due to higher emissions from the power sector, industry and aviation; however, they remain below their 2019 levels.

21

Apr

India's crude oil production declined by 2.7% in the fiscal year 2021-2022 (April 2021 to March 2022) to 29.7 Mt, in line with the recent decrease in oil production due to ageing fields. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) produced 19.45 Mt of crude oil (-3.6%). With the economic recovery, refineries processed 242 Mt of crude oil in the fiscal year 2021-2022 (+9%), producing 254 Mt of petroleum products (+8.9%). In addition, natural gas output rose by 18.7% to 34 bcm in the fiscal year 2021-2022.

19

Apr

US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (including LULUCF) declined by 11% in 2020 to 5,222 MtCO2eq, i.e., 21% below 2005 levels, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This was driven by an 11% decrease in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, primarily due to a 13% drop in transportation emissions driven by lower demand owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, power sector emissions also fell by 10%, reflecting both a slight decline in demand from the COVID-19 pandemic and a continued shift from coal to natural gas and renewables. In 2020, CO2 accounted for 79% of total emissions, followed by methane (11%), nitrous oxide (7%) and fluorinated gases (3%). Transport is the largest emitter sector (27%), followed by electricity (25%), industry (24%), commercial and residential (13%) and agriculture (11%).