Neuer sprunghafter Anstieg der Erdgasförderung in China
Die Erdgasförderung wurde mit einem Rückgang von nur 2,5 % im Jahr 2020 weniger stark von der COVID-19-Pandemie getroffen als Erdöl.
Die USA, die für ungefähr ein Viertel der globalen Erdgasförderung stehen, haben ihr Produktionsniveau im Jahr 2020 unverändert gehalten (+0,1 %). Die Erdgasförderung ist im Mittleren Osten (+1,2 %) sowie in Australien (+7,9 %) und China (+9,8 %) weiter gestiegen. Insgesamt ist sie in Asien um -0,9 % gesunken, mit einem Rückgang um 9,8 % in Indonesien und 8,2 % in Malaysia. Am stärksten war der Rückgang der globalen Erdgasförderung in Lateinamerika (-8 %) und Europa (-7 %, mit -28 % in den Niederlanden, die die Gasförderung in Groningen weiter begrenzten, und -2,4 % in Norwegen). Außerdem ging die Erdgasförderung in Afrika um 6 % zurück (mit -10 % in Algerien und -6,8 % in Ägypten).
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In 2021, Norway produced 2.03 mbl/d of liquids (+1.2%), including 1.76 mbl/d of crude oil (+4%), and 113 bcm of natural gas (+2.6%), according to the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The additional production is related to five fields starting production in 2021, namely Duva, Yme (older field which was restarted), Solveig, Martin Linge in the North Sea and Ærfugl in the northern Norwegian Sea. Moreover, the first phase of the Johan Sverdrup field in the North Sea was in full operation (second phase expected in 2022); when fully operational, it should account for 35% of oil production on the Norwegian shelf. Between 2021 and 2026, the liquid output is forecasted to increase by 1.4%/year to 2.17 mb/d in 2026, including +1.2%/year for crude oil, while the gas production should expand by 0.8%/year to 118 bcm in 2026.
Turkey's power generation rose by 13% in 2021 compared to 2020, according to the country's power transmission system operator Türkiye Elektrik İletim A.Ş. (TEİAŞ), and electricity exports surged by nearly 69% to 4.2 TWh (imports grew by over 23% to 1.9 TWh). Electricity consumption also increased by 12% in 2021.
Renewables accounted for 59% of Portugal's power consumption in 2021, with 26% of wind, 23% of hydropower, 7% of biomass and 3.5% of solar photovoltaic (PV), according to the Portuguese power transmission system operator Redes Energéticas Nacionais (REN). Solar power generation surged by 37% during the year. Non-renewable energy sources supplied 31% of electricity consumption in Portugal, with 29% of gas and 2% coal - the last remaining coal-fired power plant in Pego (628 MW) was shut down in November 2021 - and electricity imports accounted for the remaining 10%. Electricity consumption increased by 1.4% in 2021 but remains 1.7% below the 2019 level, whereas natural gas consumption declined by 4.6%, due to a 1.5% drop in the conventional segment and a 10% fall in the electricity production segment.
According to the Belgian power transmission system operator (TSO) Elia, nuclear accounted for 52% of Belgium's electricity generation in 2021 (compared to 40% in 2020) thanks to the high availability of the nuclear fleet, followed by natural gas (25%, compared to 35% in 2020), wind (12%, including 7% offshore) and solar (5%). Wind and solar power generation slightly increased in 2021 (+2%), mainly due to an increase in installed onshore (11%) and solar (17%) generation; offshore wind generation remained stable. Since 2019, Belgium has been a net electricity exporter, with 6.6 TWh of net exports in 2021. In 2021, exports increased by 59% to 21.7 TWh. Electricity consumption grew by 4% in 2021 to 84.2 TWh, and remains only 1% below the 2019 level. The average price of electricity tripled between 2020 and 2021 from €31.9/MWh in 2020 to €98.2/MWh in 2021, mainly due to high gas prices.